neofetch: Awesome system info bash script that supports Linux, MacOS, and Unix-like systems

The neofetch command written in a bash shell. The main purpose of neofetch is to be used in screenshots to display other users what operating system or Linux distro you are using including theme, icons and more. This command shows info about your system next to an image, your operating system logo and other info. … Continue reading “neofetch: Awesome system info bash script that supports Linux, MacOS, and Unix-like systems”

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Libreswan based Ipsec VPN using preshared and RSA keys on Ubuntu

The purpose of this tutorial is to explore LibreSwan which provides an IPsec protocol implementation. It is available in RedHat distributions, however, it can be compiled for another platform such as Ubuntu/Debian easily. In this article, the LibreSwan tool is built from source on Ubuntu, then a two peer VPN is configured using preshared & RSA keys between the gateway devices.

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Ubuntu 12.04 Reaching End of Life This Week

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS is reaching the end of life on 28th April 2017. If you or your organization is using Ubuntu 12.04, it is time to plan your upgrade.

You might already be aware that there are two types of release with Ubuntu: long-term support (LTS) and regular release. A regular release is supported for nine months while an LTS release is supported for five years.

Once a release reaches the end of life, it stops getting security updates from Ubuntu. The only exception to this rule is if you are a paying customer to Ubuntu, you can delay the mandatory upgrade from Ubuntu 12.04 by purchasing Ubuntu 12.04 Extended Security Maintenance (ESM).

Ubuntu 12.04 reaches end of life

Can’t upgrade now? Buy Ubuntu 12.04 ESM!

While Canonical (Ubuntu’s parent company) encourages you to upgrade to 14.04 and you’ll have to sooner or later, you get some additional time with the purchase of ESM. If you are already using the paid service from Canonical called Ubuntu Advantage, ESM is already included in your package.

In ESM, Ubuntu delivers security and maintenance upgrade via a secure, private archive on a per-node or per hour basis.

Upgrading from Ubuntu 12.04

If you cannot purchase ESM, then you have no option other than upgrading your system(s). You cannot upgrade to Ubuntu 16.04 directly. You must upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04.

Ubuntu 14.04 will be supported until April 2019 so you’ll get two additional years with this upgrade.

If you are unsure of which Ubuntu version you are using, you can use the command below to find out:
lsb_release -a

1. Upgrade instructions for Ubuntu 12.04 server edition

Once you know that you are using Ubuntu 12.04, it is time to upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04. For Ubuntu Server edition, you need to use the following commands:
sudo apt-get install update-manager-core
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo do-release-upgrade

Follow the on-screen instructions afterward.

2. Upgrade instructions for Ubuntu 12.04  desktop edition

Desktop users can upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04 the graphical way. It is simple. Just make sure that you have correct settings in Software and Updates. Under the Updates tab, make sure that you have set Notify me of a new Ubuntu version to For long-term support versions.

Ubuntu 16.04 software settings

You’ll be notified about the newer version and upgrade is just a few easy click away. You’ll need to have an active and good internet connection for this.

What’s your plan?

Ubuntu 12.04 was released on April 26, 2012. It’s FOSS wasn’t even born then. And now we have Ubuntu 12.04 reaching the end of life. Time flies indeed.

What are your plans? Do you still use Ubuntu 12.04? And if yes, have you planned your upgrade yet?

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ttyload: Color-coded graphical tracking tool for UNIX/Linux load average in a terminal

Ttyload an impressive color-coded graphical tracking of UNIX load average in a terminal. It work easily on most POSIX/Unix based systems including:
– Linux
– Solaris
– FreeBSD
– MacOS X (Darwin)
– Isilon OneFS

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How To Install sK1 Vector Editor 0.9.3 from Source on Ubuntu

This short tutorial introduces the steps to build sK1 0.9.3 from source code and install it on Ubuntu. sK1 is a prepress-oriented vector editor with CMYK feature, a free software similar to Inkscape. This tutorial is done on Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak and should be applicable to another versions as well (even for Linux Mint and Debian). I write this tutorial because sK1 is not available on Ubuntu repo even until now.

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What You Will Do

You will produce a .deb binary package of sK1 vector editor that is installable on your Ubuntu system.

Why 0.9.3?

sK1 has two development history: first it’s developed using Tcl/Tk (0.9.x) and then it’s developed using wxWidgets (2.0). Although the 0.9.x version has been obsolete (not developed anymore) the 2.0 is still not complete. The 2.0 RC2 for example, lacks SVG import and export, while 0.9.3 has all default features. When I need to review sK1, currently I will use 0.9.3 instead of 2.0. If you want to help sK1 development, go to 2.0 development at GitHub.

1. Get 0.9.3 Source Code

Download it from Sourceforge. Extract it on your $HOME directory. You can also download the source from its GitHub repo, it’s just the same 0.9.3 version.

2. Install All Dependencies

Building any source code always needs some requirements. For sK1 0.9.3, you must install required packages:

$ sudo apt-get install libx11-dev libxcursor-dev libcairo2-dev liblcms2-dev libxext-dev tk8.6-dev python-dev python-cairo-dev python-tk python-gtk2 python-imaging python-reportlab python-cairo

3. Build

After fulfilling all dependencies, now the real process begins: you must build the source code. This is very easy for sK1 because the developer has prepared us a build script. Just go inside the directory where file belongs and run this command:

$ python bdist_deb

If the build is success, that means (1) the dependencies are all OK (2) you produced the .deb package successfully. Go to next step.

If the build is failed, that means (1) the dependencies were not completely installed (2) you failed producing the .deb package. Back to step 2.

4. Install Package

You will find the .deb package stored in dist/ directory. On my system, the filename is python-sk1-0.9.3_amd64.deb. Now install this package by issuing this command:

$ sudo dpkg -i python-sk1-0.9.3_amd64.deb

5. Run sK1

Now go to menu and search for sK1. You should find it as an icon with 4 dots like a dice. Run it!


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These Projects Are Trying To Keep Memories of Ubuntu Unity Alive

Ubuntu Unity is going to be dead soon. Starting Ubuntu 18.04, Ubuntu will switch to GNOME as default desktop environment.

A lot has happened at Ubuntu after the announcement of Unity’s departure. But I am not going to dwell on it again. What we know for a fact that Unity desktop environment is going away after more than 6 years of development.

While a number of people have a strong dislike for Unity, there are many who consider it as one of the best desktop environments. I am one of them. Honestly, I am sad to see Unity go like this. I have always liked the Unity interface, don’t judge me for that 🙂

And I am surely not alone in it. There are a few people who have started to work on projects around Unity desktop environment. I am going to list three of such projects that are trying to keep Unity alive in our memories.

These projects are trying to keep Ubuntu Unity alive

1. United GNOME Theme

It all started as a concept. Someone shared a mockup of Ubuntu Unity style GNOME desktop.

Ubuntu GNOME concept

Ubuntu GNOME concept

The concept was visually so stunning that some people even suggested that Ubuntu uses similar looks in 18.04. But why wait for a complete year when you can do something today?

A developer worked on a GTK theme that looks similar to the above mockup, all within 48 hours.

So, we now have a GTK theme called United GNOME that you can use in GNOME to resemble it with Unity.

Here is a screenshot of the theme:

Unity like theme for GNOME Shell

Unity look alike GNOME Theme

The theme is under heavy development so don’t be surprised if you encounter issues here and there. You can get the theme from the link below:

United GNOME Theme

2. Enjade Desktop: Unity looks on top of KDE Plasma

When Canonical announced that they will be replacing Unity with GNOME, there were some opinions about opting KDE instead of GNOME.

Seems like someone liked the idea and decided to replicate Unity desktop’s looks in KDE Plasma. And hence we have a new project called Enjade Desktop.

Enjade Desktop

Enjade Desktop concept: Looks Unity, based on KDE Plasma

Enjade Desktop will be a Unity lookalike desktop environment based on KDE Plasma instead of GNOME. Development has not started yet but the website and the GitHub repository is up and inviting contributors.

If you would like to contribute in any way possible, do visit the project website:

Enjade Desktop

3. Yunit: A fork of Unity 8

Unity 8 logo

Unity 8 forked into Yunit

When it comes to Ubuntu Touch, UBports is a known name. It is responsible for porting Ubuntu Touch on devices like OnePlus, Fairphone and some Nexus devices.

With such experience with Ubuntu Touch, UBports could just not let Unity 8 die. Beauty of open source is that with access to the source code, anyone can make the changes and continue the project.

UBports is going to do the same with Unity 8. They have forked it into a new project called Yunit. They will be working independently on this project without any contribution from Canonical.

You can get more details on the project on its website:


What do you think?

There is another project that has forked Unity 7 and is planning to continue as Unit Desktop. But since there is hardly any details available about it, I decided to not include it in the main list here.

What do you think of these projects? Do you think it is worth trying to keep Unity alive somehow or should we move on for good? Do share your views in the comment section below. And please do share the article on social media to help us reach more people 🙂

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Eyegasm: 5 awesome Linux/Unix desktop customization that will blow your mind

.tftable {font-size:12px;color:#333333;width:100%;border-width: 1px;border-color: #a9a9a9;border-collapse: collapse;}
.tftable th {font-size:12px;background-color:#b8b8b8;border-width: 1px;padding: 8px;border-style: solid;border-color: #a9a9a9;text-align:left;}
.tftable tr {background-color:#ffffff;}
.tftable td {font-size:12px;border-width: 1px;padding: 8px;border-style: solid;border-color: #a9a9a9;}Everyone loves the desktop operating system. People customize their Linux or Unix desktop with themes, wallpapers, killer configuration and more. These customizations show you how cool your desktop can be!
awesome Linux/Unix desktop customization that will blow your mind

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How to Upgrade from Ubuntu 16.10 to Ubuntu 17.04

Ubuntu 17.04 released, codenamed “Zesty Zapus”; bringing yet another version of a remarkable operating system in the Ubuntu ecosystem, with the latest and some of the greatest open source technologies in a high-quality, easy-to-use…

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How To Verify A Ubuntu ISO Image Checksum

Verifying checksum for a GNU/Linux image is similar to comparing fingerprints for human. It verifies that your downloaded Ubuntu image is valid or not. By valid here it means it’s 100% the same as the file on official server. Whenever it’s verified valid, then it’s OK for you to use it and further to redistribute. But whenever it’s not valid, it means the image is probably corrupted, broken, of even altered by somebody else. This short tutorial shows 3 steps to verify Ubuntu image for beginners.

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What You’ll Do?

You will extract the “fingerprint” of your downloaded ISO image and compare it to its official “fingerprint”.

1. Find the Checksum First

The official checksum values (“fingerprints”) are always available on Ubuntu image download server. They are just TXT files containing image file names and checksum strings. You get them from You may choose between MD5SUMS, SHA1SUMS, or SHA256SUMS available. Any choice should be OK.

For example, these are checksum links for:

Latest version Ubuntu 17.04 (


The MD5SUMS content looks like below:

Old version Ubuntu 12.04 (


The MD5SUMS content looks like below:

2. Verify Downloaded Image

Extract checksum value from your Ubuntu image by running one of three commands: md5sum, sha1sum, or sha256sum. You see the command names are similar to the official checksum files meaning the result should be compared to respective checksum.

These are some examples for verifying a ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso image:

MD5SUM Command:

$ md5sum -b ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso


5f9c81873171bb716715c6a2ae8ff722 *ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso

SHA1SUM Command:

$ sha1sum -b ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso


14dd7b2c2766e6205ad71100ac99c90b1aa92d1c *ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso

SHA256SUM Command:

$ sha256sum -b ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso


acfcf1ab54946c67e99e0503c23385e697046fae45e393661d501100844d9a5d *ubuntu-mate-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso

The long, single alphanumerical strings are the hash checksum values. They are the “fingerprints”.

3. Compare Between Your Value and Official Value

Now you just need to compare your checksum value and its official one. The method is truly easy: copy the value > go to your browser > open the official value > Ctrl+F > paste > you should find the search matches. You just need to do this once, for example compare MD5 value with MD5SUMS, that’s enough.

Compare MD5 value with MD5SUMS:

Compare SHA1 value with SHA1SUMS:

Compare SHA256 value with SHA256SUMS:

4. How If The Comparison Failed?

While you find your value and the official values are different, it means your downloaded ISO image is not exactly the same as the one available on server. It may be corrupted, or not downloaded completely, or even broken. If that is the case you should re-download the ISO image from start.

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What To Do After Installing Ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus

If you’re a new comer to Ubuntu in 17.04 Zesty Zapus release, then welcome, this article is for you. This introduces some options you can do once finished installing Ubuntu. There are 13 options listed you can choose, mainly about applications and some tweakings. You’ll find some list about software replacements (if you come from Windows) and also educational apps. I hope this what-to-do article helps you to be a new Ubuntu user easier. Enjoy Ubuntu 17.04!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

Note: this article is about what-to-do-after-install, so if you want to download Ubuntu 17.04 family here’s a complete links, and to install it here’s a tutorial.

1. Reload

Open your Terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and perform this command line. This will get “the index” of Ubuntu repository contents (not downloading any software package). Once finished, you can do software install/search through APT or Ubuntu Software Center.

$ sudo apt-get update

Note: in case you need a beginner’s guide to Ubuntu install/remove command lines, UbuntuBuzz has released free ebook for it. You can also read first part until fifth part of it separately.

2. Install Dnscrypt

Dnscrypt is a tool “to escape” you from DNS spying while using internet. It encrypts all your DNS queries. It’s very important to your privacy. It’s recommended by PRISM Break and Privacy Tools Project. Once installed, dnscrypt enabled automatically.

$ sudo apt-get install dnscrypt-proxy

3. Install Network Speed Indicator

The name of this program is Indicator Multiload. It shows realtime up/down network speed on the top panel.

$ sudo apt-get install indicator-multiload

You can customize Indicator Multiload to show various info like this:

4. Disable Auto-Upgrade

Ubuntu has at least 3 daemons (aptd, unattended-upgrade, snapd) to download something from somewhere without user concerns. In a simplest sense, Ubuntu can do update & upgrade automatically and this may be dangerous for users with limited bandwidth. It’s up to you to disable these feature.

Disable aptd service:

$ sudo systemctl disable apt.daily.service apt.daily.timer

Disable snapd service:

$ sudo systemctl disable snapd.autoimport.service snapd.refresh.timer snapd.service snapd.socketsnapd.system-shutdown.service

Disable unattended-upgrade service:

$ sudo systemctl disable unattended-upgrades.service

Disable auto-checking for packages update:

Go to desktop menu > look for “Software & Updates” > go to Updates tab > set “Never” to the field Automatically check for updates.

Note: this is why I recommend Indicator Multiload so you can check anytime your download speed going wild without your concern.

5. Disable Firefox Auto-update

Despite the fact Ubuntu itself can do auto-upgrade, Mozilla Firefox can also do it. Again, it’s bad for limited bandwidth users. To disable auto-update, visit about:config address > search for “update” > and set to “false” (double-click) for all of these entries:

  • app.update.enabled
  • app.update.staging.enabled
  • extensions.update.enabled

    6. Install Firefox Addons

    There are some of my favorite free addons I always install whenever having new Ubuntu or any GNU/Linux system:

    • Image Block: many times I need to disable all images completely and it really saves my bandwidth a lot.
    • Load from Cache: this saves bandwidth as well, forcing Firefox to load images from already-saved cache not re-download them from server.
    • Google Search Link Fix: it allows you to copy the real URL of any Google search result. It removes the too-long-garbage URL and enables you right-click > Copy/Save Link As. For a writer like me, it’s a mandatory.
    • Tile View: it allows you to view two different tabs side-by-side. Again as a writer, it’s needed especially when I compare my writing with the reference.
    • DownThemAll!: the best cross-platform IDM-like download manager and it’s free software.
    • Task Manager: like my previous article, it allows you to monitor each of all tabs running how much MB of RAM they are using.

    To install addon, press Ctrl+Shift+A on Firefox then do search for a name and press Install button on any addon you want.

    7. Customize Time Applet

    Make it to show full date and seconds. Go to Ubuntu System Settings > System > Time & Date > go to Clock tab > check on “Weekday“, “Date and month“, “Year“, and “Seconds“.

    8. Install Synaptic

    Synaptic is a full-control GUI package manager for Ubuntu. It’s needed when you find USC is not enough. Note that apt-xapian-index package is needed to enable Synaptic search bar.

    $ sudo apt-get install synaptic apt-xapian-index

    9. Explore Ubuntu Software Center

    In case you decided not to install Synaptic, you can have an adventure with Ubuntu Software Center (USC). Ubuntu provides more than 50000 packages in repo covering all your daily needs and you can explore them via USC.

    Front Interface

    Audio & Video Category

    Games Category

    Searching “electro”

    10. Install Multimedia Support

    Default Ubuntu Desktop can play free/libre format like OGG audio and WEBM video. If you need to play MP3/FLV, then you need to install support for them manually. Among other solutions, VLC is the best.

    $ sudo apt-get install vlc

    11. Install Common Apps

    If you’re moving from Windows to Ubuntu, you’ll need app replacements. Here some free software for common use.

    Graphic Design

    GIMP (2.8.20), Inkscape (0.92.1), Krita (3.1.2), Shutter (0.93.1). Respectively, they’re replacing Photoshop, CorelDRAW, Clip Studio, and ScreenshotCaptor.

    $ sudo apt-get install gimp inkscape krita shutter


    Midori & Iridium. They’re replacing Opera and Google Chrome.

    $ sudo apt-get install midori

    To install Iridium, follow previous tutorial.

    Video Editing

    Flowblade. It’s replacing Windows Movie Maker.

    $ sudo apt-get install flowblade


    SimpleScreenRecorder (0.3.8). It’s a surprise SSR finally came to official repo in 17.04. Before 17.04, Ubuntu users should install SSR from an external PPA.

    $ sudo apt-get install simplescreenrecorder

    12. Install Unity Tweak Tool

    In case you want to customize your desktop, Unity Tweak Tool is a program specially created for it. It handles almost all customization including themes and panel. You can, for example, move the left panel to bottom.

    $ sudo apt-get install unity-tweak-tool

    13. Install Educational Apps

    If you installed Ubuntu for another one’s computers, perhaps those are used for educational purposes at schools or universities. If so, then Ubuntu supplies many educational apps for kids, elementary students, and later.


    GCompris, TuxPaint.

    $ sudo apt-get install gcompris tuxpaint

    Middle School

    TuxType, TuxMath.

    $ sudo apt-get install tuxtype tuxmath

    High School-University

    KAlgebra, GNU Octave.

    $ sudo apt-get install kalgebra octave

    More Info

    You’ll find FSF’s list of educational free software useful.


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