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How To Install Xubuntu 17.04


This tutorial guides you to install Xubuntu 17.04 in step-by-step. You’ll prepare 2 blank partitions first (20GB for main, and optionally 1GB for swap) nad use a USB flash drive as bootable media. You can apply this tutorial either for singleboot or dualboot mode. Total time needed for installation is only around 10 minutes (including all firmware & drivers). I hope this tutorial will be easy for any newbie and soon everyone can feel how joyful Xubuntu is. Happy installing!

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Note: this article is about installing. If you’re looking for something else, we have Xubuntu 17.04 review, complete 17.04 family download links, and zsync to cut download cost.

a. Preparations

Get Xubuntu 17.04: you can download it from this link. It’s about 1.2GB for 64bit and 1.3GB for 32bit.

Create 2 blank partitions: you need one blank partition at least 20GB, and (optionally) a smaller blank partition 1GB. First partition will be main, and second one will be swap partition. It’s better to prepare them before the actual installation.

Create bootable media: burn Xubuntu image into a USB drive using Unetbootin (available for Windows) or Disk Utility (Ubuntu built-in). I choose USB drive because it’s cheaper than DVD but it’s up to you to use DVD instead.

Backup: if you would install Xubuntu in dualboot mode with another OS, make backup for your important data.

Example: I prepared my /dev/sda4 70GB as main partition, /dev/sda3 2.5GB as swap partition, and /dev/sda as the bootloader location. Note: the main partition I prepared was containing Ubuntu 17.04 (as you can see below) and I decided to wipe it.

b. Booting

Boot your computer into bootable media and you should enter Xubuntu Live Session. From this point, select “Try Ubuntu” and run the icon “Install Xubuntu 17.04” from desktop.

1. Select Language

First step: choose a language. This determines the whole user interface language later. Choosing English is safe.

2. Select No Connection

Second step: choose “I don’t want to connect…” so the installation will finish quicker.

3. Select No Download

Third step: blank all choices on downloading/installing third-party programs. You can do anything like this after installation.

4. Select Something Else

Fourth step: choose “Something else” to enter full-control partitioning.

5. Create Main Partition

Fifth step: on the advanced partitioning screen, choose the first blank partition you’ve prepared (in my example: /dev/sda4 70GB) > press Change button > on the Edit partition dialog determines Size=, Use as=”EXT4″, Format partition=”check on”, Mount point=”/” > OK.

6. Create Swap Partition

Sixth step: still on the advanced partitioning screen, and this is optional, select your second blank partition (the smaller one) > press Change button > on Edit partition dialog set Use as=”swap area”, Format this partition=”check on” > OK.

7. Determine Bootloader Location

Seventh step: select the location of the bootloader. It’s typically the parent disk of your main partition. See picture below for example, my main partition is /dev/sda4 so the parent is /dev/sda and I select this parent as my bootloader location. The partitions always have number on each of their name (/dev/sda1, /dev/sda2, etc.), while parent doesn’t (/dev/sda, /dev/sdb, etc.).

8. Start Installation

Eighth step: after determining all partitions, make sure all choices are correct, and then press Install Now. Once pressed, the actual installation begins and you cannot go back.

9. Enter User Info

Ninth step: you will be asked for 3 types of user info:

Geolocation: select your geolocation. This determines your local time/date, your currency, and local formatting. Yes, you can also change this after installation.

Keyboard layout: select your preferred keyboard. Xubuntu offers Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic, and many more layouts if you need. However, default choice is safe.

Username: determine your own username & password here.

10. Wait The Progress

Tenth step: after entering all user info, you’ll wait Xubuntu System Installer to finish its job. While waiting, you’ll served with a gorgeous slideshow introducing Xubuntu. This should not take more than 15 minutes.

11. Installation Finished

After 10-15 minutes total time of installation, you’ll see Installation Complete dialog. This means it’s finished and you can enjoy Xubuntu right now.





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How To Install Ubuntu MATE 17.04

This tutorial explains how to install Ubuntu MATE 17.04 for beginners. It requires a main partition at least 20GB, and (optionally) a swap partition at least 1GB. The whole installation progress takes only around 10 minutes, including all hardware drivers. You can install 17.04 as a replacement for Windows or even dual-booting with it. Be happy with the secure, free as in freedom, and complete OS Ubuntu MATE!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.


This article is about installing. If you’re looking for something else, we have Ubuntu MATE 17.04 review, 17.04 family download links, and what to do after install.

a. Preparations

  • Get Ubuntu MATE 17.04: download the ISO image here. If you want to cut download cost, zsync does a great job.
  • Create two blank partitions: one main partition at least 20GB, and (optionally) one swap partition at least 1GB. It’s better to prepare partitions before actual installation.
  • Create bootable media: burn Ubuntu MATE image into USB drive. You can use Unetbootin (available for Windows & GNU/Linux) or Disk Utility (Ubuntu built-in).
  • Backup: make backup for you important data and pay attention while installing. Don’t be sleepy.
  • Example: I installed Ubuntu MATE 17.04 on my ASUS X44C laptop with /dev/sda5 30GB as main partition, /dev/sda3 2GB as swap partition, and /dev/sda as bootloader location.

b. Booting to Ubuntu MATE

Plug your bootable media in and set your BIOS to to enter Ubuntu MATE 17.04. In selection screen, choose “Try Ubuntu“. Then run the “Install Ubuntu MATE 17.04” icon on the desktop.

1. Select Language

First step: choose a language. This is the language of the further whole interface of Ubuntu MATE. For this example, I choose English.

2. Select No Connection

Second step: choose “I don’t want to connect…” so the installation will go quicker.

3. Select No Download

Third step: blank any option for downloading. This also makes the installation quicker.

4. Select Something Else

Fourth step: choose “Something else” option. This option will bring you to the full control partition manager.

5. Create Main Partition

Fifth step: this is the partition manager. Choose your previously-prepared main partition > press Change > determine Size=, Use as=”EXT4″, Format=”check on”, Mount point=”/” > press OK. See picture below.

6. Create Swap Partition

Sixth step: still on the same partition manager, select your second previously-prepared partition > press Change > determine Use as=”swap area”, Format=”check on” > OK.

7. Select Bootloader Location

Seventh step: choose the location for bootloader. This should be the parent disk of your main partition. Suppose the main partition is /dev/sda5, then the correct bootloader location is /dev/sda. The unnumbered one is the parent.

8. Continue Installation

Eighth step: press “Install Now” button. Once you press this, you cannot go back and the actual installation will be going. Please make sure all your settings from Fifth-Seventh steps are all correct.

9. Determine User Info

Ninth step: after pressing “Install Now”, the real installation happens. At this step, you will be asked for 3 user info:

Region
Choose your geographical region. This determines your time and date setting, including currency and local formatting.

Keyboard
Choose your keyboard layout. The default choice is safe, but if you don’t use English-US, you may choose Japanese or Arabic layout instead.

Username
Determine your username, password, and computer name.

10. Wait for Progress

Tenth step: after entering all user info, the installer will show you a beautiful slideshow introducing Ubuntu MATE. Behind this, the actual installation is going and you can see the progress by clicking white triangle below. Total installation duration on my laptop is only around 10 minutes.

Installation Finished

Once finished, the installer prompts a dialog for you whether stay on Live Session or restart instead. You can choose “Restart Now” and use Ubuntu MATE 17.04 happily.





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How To Install Kubuntu 17.04


This tutorial guides you to install Kubuntu 17.04 operating system step-by-step. You’ll prepare a main partition, a swap partition, and do installation steps using a bootable USB drive. Kubuntu can be installed on PC and laptop, and this tutorial is applicable for both. It’s easy and I hope you’ll enjoy the beautiful Kubuntu 17.04 soon!

Note: this article is about installing Kubuntu 17.04. If you’re looking for review, it’s available here.

Preparations

Get Kubuntu 17.04: download the ISO image from this list of links. You can cut down your bandwidth cost by downloading via zsync.

Two partitions: prepare 2 blank partitions, one at least 20GB for main partition, and another one at least 1GB for swap partition. Preparing partitions before installing is best for most users.

Installation media: burn the image into a USB flash drive. You can use tool like Disk Utility (Ubuntu built-in) or Unetbootin (available for Windows & GNU/Linux). Read the tutorial for Disk Utility or Unetbootin. If you don’t have any USB drive, just burn it into a DVD instead.

Be careful: make backup for your important data, don’t be sleepy, and read every step carefully. Please understand that you do the installation at your own risk.

Example: I did this installation on my laptop (ASUS X44C 64 bit) with 70GB /dev/sda4 as main partition and 2.5GB /dev/sda3 as swap partition

Booting to Kubuntu Live

Plug your USB drive in and boot your computer into USB. While entering Kubuntu 17.04 desktop screen, run “Install Kubuntu” icon on desktop.

1. Select Language

First step: choose your language. This choice will be the default user interface language of Kubuntu.

2. Select No Connection

Second step: choose “I don’t want to connect…” so installation can finish faster.

3. Select No Download

Third step: blank the choices of downloading any program while Kubuntu installing. This also makes installation faster.

4. Select Manual Partitioning

Fourth step: choose Manual for disk setup. This choice is equal to “Something Else” on Ubuntu installation.

5. Create Main Partition

Fifth step: on Prepare Partitions screen, choose the biggest blank partition you’ve prepared > select Change > edit partition:

  • Size in megabytes: already determined
  • Use as: EXT4
  • Format: yes (check on)
  • Mount point: /

then press OK > wait until main partition prepared.

6. Create Swap Partition

Sixth step: still on Prepare Partitions screen, choose the smaller blank partition you’ve prepared > press Change > set Use as: swap area > OK. Now you have two partitions for Kubuntu: main and swap.

7. Select Bootloader Location

Seventh step: still on Prepare Partitions screen, at Boot Loader section below, choose the disk location where your main partition belongs. For example, my main partition is /dev/sda4 so the disk for bootloader should be /dev/sda.

8. Continue Installation

Eighth step: please re-read all settings you’ve conducted, and if you are sure, press Install Now to proceed to the actual installation. After pressing this you cannot go back.

9. Enter Personal Info

Ninth step: while installation is progressing, Kubuntu installer asks you for your geolocation, keyboard layout, and desired username.

Geolocation: choose where you live. This determines Kubuntu system timezone, currency, and local formats/units.

Keyboard layout: choose your preferred keyboard layout. While the default option is safe for most users, there are available Japanese, Chinese, and Greek options.

Username: now create your username and password here. You can also choose to login automatically (enter desktop without password) or not.

Installation Finished

Kubuntu 17.04 installation takes around 10 minutes only. Once finished, it asks you to continue testing (stay on live session, e.g. to copy some screenshots) or restart. Enjoy Kubuntu!





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How To Install deepin 15.4 GNU/Linux


This tutorial guides you to install deepin 15.4 GNU/Linux OS. You will need to prepare at least 20GB for main partition and (optionally) 1GB for swap partition. It takes around 15 minutes to complete the installation. And what makes it different is: installing this deepin 15.4 is very amusing with beautiful screens and gorgeous introduction slideshow. Try this and you will see that deepin installer is the easiest among all GNU/Linux desktop distros today. Be happy!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

Preparation

Download deepin image: here the download links. It’s only available as 64 bit in 2.6GB size.

Prepare 2 partitions: you better prepare the partitions before performing installation. You will need a main partition at least 20GB and no less, and optionally a swap partition at least 1GB. You can partition your disk using the free and great software GParted.

Prepare installation media: burn the ISO image of deepin into a USB drive that has 4GB capacity or more. Optionally, in more classic way you can burn that into a DVD. However, this tutorial uses USB drive as example.

Example: I installed deepin 15.4 on my ASUS X44C laptop, using /dev/sda4 70GB as main partition and /dev/sda3 2.5GB as swap partition, and a 16GB USB drive as installation media. I installed the bootloader into /dev/sda as their parent disk.

Important! Make backup for your important data (if any) before doing partitioning and have best concentration while installing to avoid losing any data.

Boot to deepin

Plug the USB drive to your computer and make it boot into USB. You should see deepin screen whether it’s Live CD or Installation Screen. This tutorial takes Live CD as example.

1. Select Language

First step: choose your language.

2. Create Username

Second step: determine a username and its password, as the user account for your deepin OS. You can alse change the photo from the circle icon above the textbox. After creating username, don’t press Next but press Clock button on top-left corner of screen.

3. Select Geolocation

Third step: choose where on the world you’re living. This determines your time region, currency, and another local info.

Click time icon on top-left corner:

Then choose your place on map:

4. Select Keyboard Layout

Fourth step: choose your keyboard layout. The default choice is safe.

Click keyboard icon on top-left corner:

Then select a keyboard layout and press Next button:

5. Enter Advanced Partitioning


Fifth step: click on Advanced button so you enter Advanced Partitioning. I recommend this for most users.


5. Create Main Partition

Fifth step: select your prepared first partition and click on edit button to make it main partition. See picture below:

Then on Edit Disk dialog determine (1) filesystem: ext4 (2) mount point: / (3) format the partition: check on and then OK. See picture below*.

*) Yes, at the time I made this screenshot, indeed, I made my formerly Ubuntu 17.04 as main partition for deepin on purpose so no problem.

6. Creating Swap Partition

Sixth step: no difference to fifth step, except you change the Filesystem selection to “SWAP”.

7. Select Bootloader Location

Seventh step: choose where on your disk to install the bootloader. A bootloader is the screen where you choose one of all operating systems available on your computer in every booting. The location you should choose is the parent disk where your main partition belongs, for example my main partition is /dev/sda4 so the parent disk is /dev/sda. If my main partition is /dev/sdb4, then the parent disk is /dev/sdb. Notice the difference between with and without ending number, partition and its parent disk. And so on.

Click on change bootloader on the advanced partitioning screen:

Then select the location:

8. Start Installation

Now recheck everything on summary on Prepare for Installation screen. Once you’re sure nothing wrong, press Continue to proceed the actual installation. Note that you cannot revert back after this.

While installing, deepin installer will show you an incredibly cool slideshow you perhaps hard to imagine. This installation takes around 15 minutes on my laptop.

Installation Finished

Once finished, deepin will say “Successfully Installed” and let you click Experience now to reboot. Be happy with deepin 15.4!





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How To Install Ubuntu Budgie 17.04


This is a simple guide to install Ubuntu Budgie 17.04. Because Ubuntu Budgie is a new comer to Ubuntu family, we believe this tutorial will be needed by many beginners. This will explain installation on a laptop by first preparing blank partitions to make it safer for most beginner users. This installation will need at least 20GB of disk space. The total time needed is only 10 minutes. It’s quick and easy with gorgeous OS Ubuntu Budgie. Enjoy!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

Note: this article is about installing Ubuntu Budgie 17.04. If you need something else, we have the review, complete download links for all 17.04 family, and how to cut download cost with zsync.

a. Preparations

Get Ubuntu ISO image. You can use zsync to cut download cost. Here the complete download links for 17.04.

Prepare 2 blank partitions: one at least 20GB will be main partition, and one (at your option) 1GB will be swap partition.

Prepare installation media: burn the ISO image into USB drive, this is the most common method today. You can use Unetbootin (Windows/Ubuntu), Disk Utility (Ubuntu built-in), or Multisystem.

Make backup: have full concentration while installing, don’t be sleepy, and make sure you’ve created backup for your important data.

Example: I prepared my /dev/sda4 70GB as main and /dev/sda3 2.5GB as swap. The bootloader will be installed to /dev/sda as the parent device for both main & swap.

b. Boot to Installer

After making the installation media, you should insert it into your computer > reboot > enter BIOS > change the first boot into USB drive (or CDROM if you use DVD) > save & reboot > on the Ubuntu Budgie live session welcome choose “Try Ubuntu Budgie”. On the desktop you should run the program “Install Ubuntu Budgie 17.04” so the installer window is ready.

1. Choose A Language

First step: select English on the language selection. However, if you see your mother language available, you can choose it instead.

2. Choose No Connection

Second step: choose “I don’t want to connect…” to make the installation process quick.

3. Choose No Downloading

Third step: make sure there is no check on “Install third-party…” so it won’t waste the time to do something you rather do it after install.

4. Choose Something Else

Fourth step: choose “Something else”. This gives you full control over all your disk partitions.

5. Create Main Partition

Fifth step: on the partition table, choose the main partition you’ve prepared > click “Change” > make sure the “Size” is 20GB or more > choose “Use as” = Ext4 > check on “Format partition” > choose “Mount point” = / > click OK.

6. Create Swap Partition

Sixth step: still on the partition table, choose the second, smaller partition you’ve prepared > choose the “Use as” = swap area > click OK.

7. Choose Bootloader Location

Seventh step: select disk location where the GRUB bootloader will be placed. Generally, the default choice is safe. However, to make it sure, it should be the disk where your main partition belong. So if your main partition is /dev/sda4 then the correct disk location will be /dev/sda. See that /dev/sda4 is a partition inside /dev/sda.

8. Start Installing

Eight step: begin the installation by clicking “Install Now”. Remember that by pressing this button you cannot go back. So make sure all your partitioning decisions are correct.

9. Determine Your Info

Ninth step: after clicking Install Now, the actual install will be performed, and you will be asked for 3 basic info:

9.1 Geolocation

Click on the map where you’re living. This determines your time & date setting, regional formats (such as money currency), and even holidays.

9.2 Keyboard Layout

Select your keyboard layout here. However, default selection is safe.


9.3 Username

Determine your username and password for Ubuntu here.


Waiting

After filling 3 personal info, the installation window will take you to see beautiful slideshow introducing Ubuntu Budgie. The total installation time is around 10 minutes only in my machine.

Installation Finished

Once finished, the installer will inform you. You have the choice to stay on the live session or just reboot. Now enjoy Ubuntu Budgie 17.04!





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How To Install Ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus


This tutorial shows how to install Ubuntu 17.04 Desktop in step-by-step. This tutorial is intended for new users with screenshot in each step so it will be very simple and quick. The installation itself takes only 10 minutes. For all new users, I wish this guide will be a good first-time experience for you. Finally, welcome to 17.04 and enjoy!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.


a. Preparations

You should prepare one installation media and two blank HDD partitions.

Installation media: the best for today is bootable USB drive. You can burn Ubuntu 17.04 image file using Unetbootin (GNU/Linux & Windows), or GNOME Disk Utility (Ubuntu built-in). You need at least 2GB blank USB drive to make it.

Partitions: prepare one first blank partition as 20GB at least, and one second blank partition as 1GB. The first will be your main Ubuntu system partition, and the second will be swap partition. For this day computing, less swap should be safe for desktop.

Example: I prepare a first partition /dev/sda6 20GB as main, and second partition /dev/sda7 2GB as swap (both are blank). I use my SanDisk USB drive 16GB as installation media. I finished installing 17.04 on my laptop Acer Aspire One 756.

Warning: don’t do anything you don’t know! Make backup for your important data before installing Ubuntu. Don’t be sleepy while installing. Ask somebody experienced in GNU/Linux installation to guide you directly at your place if you’re confused. Do it at your own risk.

Notes: I always recommend preparing partitions before the installation to avoid any disaster (e.g. accidental wipe out whole HDD). However, about swap it’s actually your choice, you’ll need swap (1xRAM) only when you need hibernate. Please read AskUbuntu here.

b. Booting to Live Session

Now plug your USB drive in and reboot your computer to it. You should see Ubuntu Live Session running from your USB drive. You’ll be asked to “Try Ubuntu” or to “Install Ubuntu”, then choose Try.

1. Choose Language

First step: choose English. It’s up to you to choose your mother language here, but this tutorial uses English.

2. Choose No Connection

Second step: choose not to connect.

3. Choose No Downloading

Third step: choose not to download anything.

4. Choose Something Else

Fourth step: choose Something Else. You get full control over your partitions if you use this.

5. Create Main Partition

Fifth step: choose your prepared first blank partition and press Change button. In my example I choose my “/dev/sda6 20GB“. In its dialog, choose Ext4 Filesystem + check on Format” + choose / (slash) as mountpoint. These will make main partition.

6. Create Swap Partition

Sixth step: choose your prepared second blank partition and press Change button. Determine this as swap. Then press OK.

7. Choose Bootloader Location

Seventh step: choose where the location for GRUB bootloader being installed. If your partition is like mine, /dev/sda6, then the correct location is /dev/sda. See the pattern, /dev/sda6 is a room inside /dev/sda; so if yours are different e.g. /dev/sdb9, then the correct location is /dev/sdb and so on.

8. Proceed the Installation

Eight step: click Continue Install and Ubiquity will perform all your setups above to the actual installation. You cannot go back after proceeding.

9. Determine System Info

Ninth step: after proceeding, you’ll be asked for 3 info: your geographic location, your keyboard layout, your new username/password. These info are important. After filling these 3 info you’ll see installation progress until it’s finished. Ubiquity provides pictures slideshow to fill this time.

Location: just click where your curent position is. This determines your local time (e.g. UTC) and local info (e.g. currency, numbering format).

Keyboard: select your keyboard layout. Default choice is safe.

Username: create your own username and password here. You may choose auto/manual login, too.

Progressing: wait for 5 minutes or so for the system installer.

Finish

Once finished, Ubiquity will notify that installation is done seccessfully. You may choose to stay at live-session or reboot. Enjoy Ubuntu 17.04!





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How To Install Linux Mint 18.1 “Serena” Cinnamon Edition


This article guides you step by step to install Linux Mint 18.1 Cinnamon Edition. This 18.1 is a Long Term Support version (will be supported until 2021) and codenamed “Serena”. I based this guide on my laptop Acer Aspire One, Intel Celeron 64 bit, 4GB RAM, 120GB SSD. I hope this simple guide helps more beginners into GNU/Linux.

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel https://telegram.me/ubuntubuzz to get article updates directly.

a. Prepare The Installation Media

First obtain the ISO image file of Linux Mint 18.1. Then write the ISO file to a USB drive. Such USB bootable drive is the easiest media for any GNU/Linux installation. You can obtain the ISO from the official source:

b. Prepare The Partitions

Preparing the partitions before installing is the quickest method for installing any GNU/Linux. So you need to create or provide one partition for the main system and one partition for the swap. In my system, I prepared /dev/sda6 20GB for the main partition, and /dev/sda7 2GB for swap.

WARNING: DISK PARTITIONING IS DANGEROUS! Make sure you understand and read your screen carefully in every single step while doing Linux Mint installation. Don’t be sleepy, don’t make any mistake, always be careful while you doing anything with disk partitioning and system installation. Don’t continue the installation if you are not sure or you can ask someone nearby capable to help you directly. You do it on your own risk.

c. Boot To Live Session

Now boot your computer into your USB drive so you see the live session. It appears as a normal desktop OS you can try. What you need to do is running the Install Linux Mint program on desktop. This system installer program is called Ubiquity.

1. Select Language

At first page of Ubiquity, select your language. This will affect the rest of partitioning language.

2. Select On-Installation Connection

The quickest choice here is ‘I don’t want to connect”. This makes the installation does not download anything while installing.

3. Selecting Third-Party Programs Installation

The quickest choice here is leave the choice unchecked. By leaving it unchecked, it won’t download any third-party program while installing.

4. Select Partitioning Option

Select “Something else” so you enter the manual partitioner. Always believe yourself in partitioning, don’t believe automatic choices.

5. Creating System Partition

In creating main system partition, as you have prepared a blank partition before, now you can just select the partition and edit it. In this example, I select /dev/sda6 20GB —> press Change button —> (1) determine partition size as 20GB —> (2) determine Ext4 as the file system type —> (3) choose to format the partition —> (4) determine slash (/) as the mount point —> OK. See picture below.

6. Creating Swap Partition

Just the same as creating main system partition (slash), create one partition as swap from the blank partition you have prepared. In this example, I choose /dev/sda7 2GB as my swap.

7. Selecting Bootloader

Select your hard disk where the main partition belongs. In this example, my hard disk in only one: /dev/sda. This is the place where your bootloader being installed. Bootloader is a program that allows you to choose one among the operating systems installed to boot.

8. Select Time Region

Select your time region by either clicking on the map of typing on the bottom text box. For example here, I choose Jakarta. This choice of region affects your time and date settings.

9. Select Keyboard Layout

Select a keyboard layout available as you wish. For most users, the default choice is OK.

10. Select Username & Password

You need to determine the username and password of your Linux Mint.

11. Waiting The Progress

Now the Ubiquity takes the rest jobs for you. You may need to wait for 5-10 minutes. In my system, this installation progress takes about 6 minutes.

12. Installation Finished

While you see a notification sating Installation Complete, it means the installation progress has finished. Now you can reboot to your just installed Linux Mint 18.1 Serena.





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