This tutorial shows how to install a Debian 9 (Stretch) minimal server in detail with many screenshots. The purpose of this guide is to provide a minimal setup that can be used as basis for our other Debian 9 tutorials here at howtoforge.com.
Source link: https://www.howtoforge.com/tutorial/debian-minimal-server/
If you want to download Debian 9 “Stretch” GNU/Linux, I list here download links for 32 and 64 bit architectures via HTTP and BitTorrent. You’ll get direct links for both DVD and LiveDVD, followed by some release info. You just need to click any link below to download Debian. This list also contains mirrors for some countries. Finally, I hope this list helps all users a lot.
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A. Debian Installer (Non-LiveCD)
Note: to install Debian, you just need to get DVD 1.
DVD 1 https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/amd64/iso-dvd/debian-9.0.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
DVD 2 https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/amd64/iso-dvd/debian-9.0.0-amd64-DVD-2.iso
DVD 3 https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/amd64/iso-dvd/debian-9.0.0-amd64-DVD-3.iso
Note: to install Debian, you just need to get DVD 1.
DVD 1 https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/i386/iso-dvd/debian-9.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
DVD 2 https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/i386/iso-dvd/debian-9.0.0-i386-DVD-2.iso
DVD 3 https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/i386/iso-dvd/debian-9.0.0-i386-DVD-3.iso
B. Debian LiveDVD
Debian Cinnamon https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-cinnamon.iso
Debian GNOME https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-gnome.iso
Debian KDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-kde.iso
Debian LXDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-lxde.iso
Debian MATE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-mate.iso
Debian XFCE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-xfce.iso
Debian Cinnamon https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-cinnamon.iso
Debian GNOME https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-gnome.iso
Debian KDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-kde.iso
Debian LXDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-lxde.iso
Debian MATE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-mate.iso
Debian XFCE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-xfce.iso
Note: to download torrent, use Transmission free software on GNU/Linux, Windows, or Mac OS X.
Debian Cinnamon https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-cinnamon.iso.torrent
Debian GNOME https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-gnome.iso.torrent
Debian KDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-kde.iso.torrent
Debian LXDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-lxde.iso.torrent
Debian MATE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-mate.iso.torrent
Debian XFCE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-amd64-xfce.iso.torrent
Note: to download torrent, use Transmission free software on GNU/Linux, Windows, or Mac OS X.
Debian Cinnamon https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-cinnamon.iso.torrent
Debian GNOME https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-gnome.iso.torrent
Debian KDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-kde.iso.torrent
Debian LXDE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-lxde.iso.torrent
Debian MATE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-mate.iso.torrent
Debian XFCE https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/i386/bt-hybrid/debian-live-9.0.0-i386-xfce.iso.torrent
Here is some mirrors from some countries followed with list of another mirrors. Download Debian from a mirror instead when you find links above are slow.
- Indonesia http://kartolo.sby.datautama.net.id/debian-cd/
- Japan http://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/debian-cd/
- USA http://mirrors.kernel.org/debian-cd/
- UK http://mirrorservice.org/sites/cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/
- Germany http://debian-cd.repulsive.eu/
- List of worldwide mirrors https://www.debian.org/CD/http-ftp/
If you want to install Debian, read the official manuals.
Here I mention some interesting news from release notes of Debian 9:
- PowerPC architecture support is dropped.
- CDs release are now dropped, as Debian 9 is now released as 12-14 binary DVDs and 12 source code DVDs.
- MIPS 64 Little Endian is the new architecture supported.
- Debian 9 is an LTS version supported for next 5 years.
- GNOME version is updated to 3.22, KDE Plasma version is updated to 5.8.
- MariaDB replaced MySQL.
- Total 51000 binary packages and 25.000 source code packages on Debian 9.
- https://www.debian.org/News/2017/20170617 “Debian 9 “Stretch” released”
- https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/amd64/release-notes/ch-whats-new.en.html “Chapter 2. What’s new in Debian 9”
Debian GNU/Linux version 9.0 stretch has been released ( jump to download ) after many months of constant development and available for download in various media format. Debian 9.0 is a free operating system includes various new features such as support for mips64el architecture, GNOME 3.22, KDE Plasma 5.8, LXDE, LXQt 0.11, MATE 1.16, Xfce 4.12, Linux kernel 4.9 and more. Debian 9 is dedicated to the project’s founder Ian Murdock, who passed away on 28 December 2015.
Source link: https://www.cyberciti.biz/linux-news/download-debian-9-cd-dvd-iso-images/
Oracle Java 6 and 7 are now only available for those with an Oracle Support account (which is not free), so I can’t support this for the PPA packages.
From the Oracle Java downloads page:
“Updates for Java SE 7 released after April 2015, and updates for Java SE 6 released after April 2013 are only available to Oracle Customers through My Oracle Support (requires support login).
Java SE Advanced offers users commercial features, access to critical bug fixes, security fixes, and general maintenance”.
- /var/cache/oracle-jdk6-installer/ for JDK 6 (you’ll need version 6u45)
- /var/cache/oracle-jdk7-installer/ for JDK 7 (you’ll need version 7u80 for 32bit and 64bit or 7u60 for arm)
… and then install the oracle-java6-installer or oracle-java7-installer package.
I shared an interview with GSOC Winners a while back. In the same tradition, please allow me to share the interview of one of the four Debian Interns who were part of GNOME Outreachy the last season, Maria Glukova (shortening to Maria for convenience).
Maria introduces herself as –
Maria – I do not consider myself a good example for future Outreachy interns. I feel that I could have done much more. But for what it’s worth, I will be glad to assist in anything that promotes Debian. I love Debian and its community and I aspire to be a part of it.
Shirish – When and how did you come to know about Outreachy?
Maria – I have found out about Outreachy on Twitter – one of my friends has retweeted the tweet from Sarah Sharp about it.
Shirish – Had you participated in Outreachy or any other internship program before this?
Maria – No. Now, to think of it, I really think I should have started earlier. Right now I am in my last year in university and I feel like I am running out of time. But before this year I heard only about GSoC and I always thought it is for some really, really smart students. Not for me.
Now I would definitely advise any student and, in fact, just anyone making their first steps in tech industry to seek internships like this. Even if you don’t get into it on the first try, you can still learn a lot from the attempt.
Shirish – Please share a bit about your project in a bit detail –
Maria – I saw reproducible build page and it does seem to be lots of little fixes needed in lots of places.
Shirish – Are there any specific bits you are looking at/contributing to or all the different packages/applications?
Maria – My work was focused on Diffoscope – specific tool that is used throughout the Reproducible Builds project. I was not taking part in the “main” work on reproducibility of Debian packages (meaning I haven’t sent any patches to specific packages), but I do hope my work on Diffoscope would help to identify the problems with reproducibility
easier, thus indirectly helping with fixing them.
Shirish – From what little I could make out, Outreachy happens twice a year. From their past history, in the last round that you participated there were 13 other organizations, did you try applying at those other organizations as well? If yes, what prompted you to choose Debian over the others?
Maria – I haven’t tried applying to any other organization. In fact, at the time I started applying, Debian was the only organization I really, really wanted to work with. I am not sure I would even try to apply anywhere else if Debian wasn’t on the list. I have been a Debian user for about three years already and the sole possibility of becoming a part of its community, doing something helpful “in return” was intriguing enough for me to overcome my fears and apply.
Shirish – Was there any competition when you were applying for the chosen project and if there was, what strategies (if any) you chose to make sure you were the one to be chosen?
Maria – There was almost no competition for the Reproducible Builds project, unfortunately.
Shirish – When talking with mentors, what was your preferred way to ask or/and share comments, opinions etc. – IRC, IM, E-Mail or some other way. If you chose all the methods to share why did you need to do that? If you chose a certain method of communication, please share why that method was preferred over others?
Maria – I used IRC. That was mainly because IRC was a preferred way for my mentor; but for me, it was a nice chance to get an idea of how the communication in the Debian community works.
Shirish – There is a brief window between looking into a project, trying to see the upsides and downsides and then committing to a project. What factors lead you to commit time to your specific project?
Maria – The community was as friendly and welcoming as I expected it to be; My mentor was providing me valuable feedback and guidance during the initial contribution. What’s not to like?
Shirish – Please share the link of your application.
Shirish – What were interesting challenges that you expected and did not expect or anticipate during the project?
Maria – Testing. I have spent more time than it was probably expected to learn how to configure a testing environment, how Debian package is built (a couple of bugs that I was working on were occurring during the build process). I was glad to learn these things, though.
Shirish – Can you provide screenshots of the work that you are doing to share?
Maria – I am not sure what should be included here but here is, for example, how the html output of Diffoscope ran over different types of containers would look like once my changes are accepted. (That was one of the goals – to make it compare, e.g. .ZIP with .TAR.GZ archives).
Maria Glukova is available on Twitter as @siamezzze. If you want to contact her regarding her projects or about Outreachy, she will be happy to answer your queries.
The neofetch command written in a bash shell. The main purpose of neofetch is to be used in screenshots to display other users what operating system or Linux distro you are using including theme, icons and more. This command shows info about your system next to an image, your operating system logo and other info. … Continue reading “neofetch: Awesome system info bash script that supports Linux, MacOS, and Unix-like systems”
Source link: https://www.cyberciti.biz/howto/neofetch-awesome-system-info-bash-script-for-linux-unix-macos/
Ttyload an impressive color-coded graphical tracking of UNIX load average in a terminal. It work easily on most POSIX/Unix based systems including:
– MacOS X (Darwin)
– Isilon OneFS
Source link: https://www.cyberciti.biz/open-source/command-line-hacks/ttyload-color-coded-graphical-tracking-tool-for-unixlinux-load-average-in-a-terminal/
Brief: This article explains the steps to upgrade Linux kernel in Debian. It also provides you a few tips and some trivia around kernel management in Debian Linux.
While upgrading Linux Kernel in Ubuntu is slightly easier thanks to some graphical tool, I as a Debian user prefer to things right in the terminal instead of in GUI. Before we see how to upgrade Linux kernel in Debian, let’s see a few things about it first.
The Debian LTS kernel Initiative
Now the Linux kernel is an ever-moving target. Roughly every four months Linus releases a new kernel. Four months is a pretty short time to catch all the regressions and add new features etc. and hence . in 2011, a number of electronic makers came together and the LTSI initiative was born.
The reason I shared the above is, at least in Debian, the Debian kernel maintainers always try to stick to the LTSI release in the stable release. The reasoning is simple, you get two years maintenance from upstream kernel which is similar to Redhat and Canonical’s Ubuntu. Debian also provides security support for 5 years for the Debian kernel plus apps and they have been somewhat successful in raising the required amount although it never can be enough.
Who really needs a new kernel?
There are only 2-3 types of people or people thrown into situations where a kernel upgrade will benefit.
- Have the latest hardware – While both chip manufacturers nowadays send code and driver contributions around 6 months before release, the userspace tools would need more time to be optimized and know the system a bit more intimately. For e.g. if I were to a Kaby Lake processor or a Zen processor then having the latest kernels will at the very least make sure you have a CLI (command-line interface) if not the GUI.
- Regression – At times, mistakes do happen which are called regressions. These regressions over-time are and can be expensive to an organization. This has been discussed and known over the years and the only way to do that is have more and more users testing the kernels and having a variety of kernels in real-world conditions. In reality, most people do not even know that the kernel has a performance regression unless there is a specific use-case and there are other kernel versions doing the same/similar work with the same specs.
- Formatting a system to start things from scratch – Whenever you format your system it makes most sense to use the latest available kernel
How to know Linux Kernel version in Debian Linux?
Before we go anywhere or do anything, we need to know what is the version of the existing kernel. You can use the command below:
The output of the above command for my system is 4.9.0-2-amd64 meaning that I use Linux Kernel 4.9.0-2.
Using backport Linux kernels in Debian
Now if I were on Debian Jessie, what is called as the “stable” in Debian for 64-bit systems (as that’s in vogue now) – I would be using 3.16.0-4. Now let’s say for one or the reason from the above, you want the backported kernel. Now the only thing you need to do is to add backports to the list of /etc/apt/sources.list . Here is an example of an /etc/apt/sources.list using stable –
View the code on Gist.
Do that and run
sudo aptitude update
Look for available Linux Kernel
Once the index is updated, you can do –
aptitude search linux-image
It should give you a list containing your existing kernel as well as any new kernel images its finds. Mine is a bit differently tailored /etc/apt/sources.list hence gives slightly different results.
As you can see, the linux-image commanded also showed the 32-bit kernels because I have added architecture-i386 as a foreign architecture.
View the code on Gist.
Installing a new Linux Kernel in Debian
Now usually if people want to update, they simply update linux-image-amd64 and it will pull in the required dependencies.
In my case, however, as there are no kernel updates in the short-term I will show how to update/upgrade to the next kernel, in this case 4.10.0-trunk. So this is what I do:
sudo aptitude install linux-image-4.10.0-trunk-amd64-unsigned linux-headers-4.10.0-trunk-amd64
Just follow the instructions. If something goes wrong, you’ll still be on the old kernel. However, I would insist that you file a bug report to Debian developers.
I hope you know how to upgrade Linux kernel in Debian and you also learned a few things about Linux kernel. As I love using Debian, I’ll write more articles around it in coming weeks.
In this article, I will show you how to configure a MySQL database cluster with three nodes in a multi-master replication. Multi-master replication allows writing of records in each node, so if a node will fail, we can work on the other as if nothing happened. This tutorial describes how to install and configure three Percona XtraDB Cluster nodes on Debian 8 servers, we will be using the packages from the Percona repositories.
Source link: https://www.howtoforge.com/tutorial/how-to-install-percona-xtradb-cluster-for-mysql/
Source link: https://www.howtoforge.com/tutorial/how-to-save-traffic-with-nginxs-httpgzipmodule-debian-jessie/